(just accepted, 2023),
"Multi-Criteria Optimization of Real-Timez DAGs on Heterogeneous Platforms under P-EDF".
ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ACM.
This paper tackles the problem of optimal placement of complex real-time embedded applications on heterogeneous platforms. Applications are composed of directed acyclic graphs of tasks, with each DAG having a minimum inter-arrival period for its activation requests, and an end-to-end deadline within which all of the computations need to terminate since each activation. The platforms of interest are heterogeneous power-aware multi-core platforms with DVFS capabilities, including big.LITTLE Arm architectures, and platforms with GPU or FPGA hardware accelerators with Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration capabilities. Tasks can be deployed on CPUs using partitioned EDF-based scheduling. Additionally, some of the tasks may have an alternate implementation available for one of the accelerators on the target platform, which are assumed to serve requests in non-preemptive FIFO order. The system can be optimized by: minimizing power consumption, respecting precise timing constraints; maximizing the applications’ slack, respecting given power consumption constraints; or even a combination of these, in a multi-objective formulation.
We propose an off-line optimization of the mentioned problem based on mixed-integer quadratic constraint programming (MIQCP). The optimization provides the DVFS configuration of all the CPUs (or accelerators) capable of frequency switching and the placement to be followed by each task in the DAGs, including the software-vs-hardware implementation choice for tasks that can be hardware-accelerated. For relatively big problems, we developed heuristic solvers capable of providing suboptimal solutions in a significantly reduced time compared to the MIQCP strategy, thus widening the applicability of the proposed framework.
We validate the approach by running a set of randomly generated DAGs on Linux under SCHED_DEADLINE, deployed onto two real boards, one with Arm big.LITTLE architecture, the other with FPGA acceleration, verifying that the experimental runs meet the theoretical expectations in terms of timing and power optimization goals.